- 42 BC Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
- 1911 1st aerial reconnaissance mission is flown by an Italian pilot over Turkish lines during the Italo-Turkish War
- 1942 During WWII, Britain launches major offensive at El Alamein, Egypt
- 1977 Paleontologist Elso Barghoorn announces discovery of a 3.4-billion year old one-celled fossil, one of the earliest life forms on Earth
- 1981 US national debt hits $1 trillion
- 2001 The Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talks