- 1661 Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed after having been dead for two years
- 1815 Burned US Library of Congress re-established with Thomas Jefferson’s 6,500 volumes
- 1902 Britain and Japan sign a treaty after months of negotiating which commits each country to supporting an independent China and Korea, although it acknowledges Japan’s ‘special interest’ in Korea
- 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reich Chancellor of Germany who forms a government with Franz von Papen
- 1939 Adolf Hitler threatens Jews during his speech to the German Reichstag (Parliament)
- 1948 Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse
- 1965 State Funeral of Winston Churchill at St Paul’s Cathedral in London. Then world’s largest ever state funeral.
- 1972 Bloody Sunday: 27 unarmed civilians are shot (14 are killed) by the British Army during a civil rights march in Derry, Northern Ireland; this is the highest death toll from a single shooting incident during ‘the Troubles’