31 BC: Battle of Actium: decisive naval battle that effectively ends the Roman Republic. Octavian’s forces defeat those under Mark Antony and Cleopatra off the western coast of Greece.
1192: Sultan Saladin and King Richard the Lionheart of England sign treaty over Jerusalem, at end of the Third Crusade
1666: Great Fire of London begins at 2am in Pudding Lane, 80% of London is destroyed
1792: September Massacres of the French Revolution: In Paris rampaging mobs slaughter 3 Roman Catholic bishops, more than two hundred priests, and prisoners believed to be royalist sympathizers.
1864: Union General William T. Sherman captures and burns Atlanta during Savannah Campaign (US Civil War)
1944: Holocaust diarist Anne Frank sent to Auschwitz concentration camp
1945: V-J Day, formal Surrender of Japan aboard USS Missouri marks the end of World War II (Japanese date, 1st September in US)