42 BC: Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
1911: 1st aerial reconnaissance mission is flown by an Italian pilot over Turkish lines during the Italo-Turkish War
1942: During WWII, Britain launches major offensive at El Alamein, Egypt
1977: Paleontologist Elso Barghoorn announces discovery of a 3.4-billion year old one-celled fossil, one of the earliest life forms on Earth
1981: US national debt hits $1 trillion
2001: The Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talksSource: Onthisday.com