1242: Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod defeats Teutonic Knights in the Battle of the Ice
1722: Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen discovers Easter Island / Rapa Nui in the southeastern Pacific
1818: In the Battle of Maipú, Chile’s independence movement – led by Bernardo O’Higgins and José de San Martín – win a decisive victory over Spain, leaving 2,000 Spaniards and 1,000 Chilean patriots dead.
1847: Birkenhead Park, the first civic public park, opens in Birkenhead, England, designed by Joseph Paxton
1879: Chile declares war on Bolivia and Peru, starting the War of the Pacific.