1095: Pope Urban II preaches the west to wrestle control of the Holy land the Seljuk Turks at the Council of Clermont, triggering the First Crusade
1295: English King Edward I calls what later became known as “The Model Parliament” extending the authorities of its representatives
1493: Christopher Columbus returns to La Navidad colony, finding it destroyed by the 1st native American uprising against Spanish rule. Taíno cacique Caonabo led his people to attack the settlement after the brutal treatment they received from the garrison who disobeyed Columbus’s orders.
1807: Portuguese Royal Family and its court of nearly 15,000 people leave Lisbon for their colony of Brazil to escape invading Napoleonic troops
1895: Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel’s will establishes the Nobel Prize