585: BC Solar eclipse, as predicted by Greek philosopher Thales, while Lydians at war with the Medes leads to a truce. One of the cardinal dates from which other dates calculated.
1431: Joan of Arc is accused of relapsing into heresy by donning male clothing again, providing justification for her execution
1588: Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina-Sidonia departs Lisbon to invade England
1830: US President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, a key law leading to the forced removal of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes out of Georgia and surrounding states, setting the stage for the Cherokee Trail of Tears
1936: Alan Turing submits “On Computable Numbers” for publication, in which he set out the theoretical basis for modern computers.
1972: White House “plumbers” first break in at the Democratic National Headquarters at Watergate Complex in Washington, D.C.